Friday, September 30, 2011

Oct.1: International Day of Older Persons

International Day of Older Persons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The International Day of Older Persons is observed on October 1 each year.

On December 14, 1990 the United Nations General Assembly voted to establish October 1 as the International Day of Older Persons as recorded in Resolution 45/106.[1] The holiday was observed for the first time on October 1, 1991.[2]

The holiday is celebrated by raising awareness about issues affecting the elderly, such as senescence and elder abuse. It is also a day to appreciate the contributions that older people make to society.

This holiday is similar to National Grandparents Day in the United States and Canada as well as Respect for the Aged Day in Japan. The observance is a focus of ageing organizations and the United Nations Programme on Ageing.

Courtesy_

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Day_of_Older_Persons

Maalaimalar ePaper


India to get its first AC double-decker train from Oct.1, 2011

India to get its first AC double-decker train

RAKTIMA BOSE

KOLKATA, October 30, 2010

The new double-decker train arrives at the Howrah station on Friday. Photo: Sushanta Patronobish

India's first air-conditioned double-decker train is expected to be launched on the Howrah-Dhanbad sector before the Diwali celebrations.

While a few old double-decker coaches are still operational on the Mumbai-Surat route currently, the new coaches that are built with a "crashworthy design" will also have state-of-the-art facilities for passenger comfort.

Developed at the Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala, eight double-decker coaches were recently brought to Howrah for conducting trial runs before the official flagging-off ceremony.

People in West Bengal had the experience of travelling in double-decker coaches when two such coaches ran between Howrah and industrial-township Durgapur as part of the Black Diamond Express.

The coaches, however, were decommissioned in the early 1980s as passengers complained of suffocation and uneasiness.

"While those travelling in the upper deck felt hot and suffocated, those travelling in the lower deck suffered from inhaling dust entering through the lower deck windows situated almost at the ground level," a senior railway official told The Hindu on Friday.

The new coaches – built according to Eurofoma design – will accommodate 128 passengers each and can run at a maximum speed of 160 kmph due to the presence of 'air-springs' in their under-carriages.

As the newly arrived coaches are painted in a combination of red and yellow, which neither Railway Minister Mamata Banerjee nor the railway officials liked, the coaches are expected to undergo a 'green' makeover before its maiden journey.

The coaches with a height of 4,366 mm will be higher than the conventional LHB coaches whose height is around 3,950 mm.

The increase in height, however, can pose problems both in connection with the overhead electric wires and the height of station platforms. Incidentally, scratches have been discovered on the lower portion of two of the new coaches. They are believed to have been caused after grazing a platform.

"We are looking into the factors. While the overhead electric wiring has been modified at places, the second issue is expected to be sorted out soon," the official said.

Courtesy_

Also read the related stories



Also view the related Videos




--

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Windows 1.0 to 8.....

1985  Windows 1.0



The First Version of Microsoft Windows, Windows 1.0, with simple applications and the concept of multitasking on PC


1987  Windows 2.0



The Second Version of Windows, Windows 2.0 with some fixes and the Control Panel.

1988  Windows 2.1



The Second Version of Windows with some additions, and some fixes, Windows 2.1, the Paint software is seen in this

1990  Windows 3.0



The Third Version of Windows, Windows 3.0, featuring the File Manager and Program Manager, replacing the old MS DOS based File and Program Managers.

1992  Windows 3.1




The later released upgraded version of Windows 3.0, which had support for 32-bit Disk Access, Personalization options and had the Minesweeper game for the first time.

1995  Windows 95



Windows 95, the changed look, the new interface and the beginning of the form of Windows which we see now. Enhanced Graphics and better Communication Programs.

1998  Windows 98



Windows 98, one of the most successful versions of Windows till now, this version of Windows can still be seen in some PCs even today. With Extended Softwares, better Performance, this Version was the first milestone in the path of the development of Windows.

2000  Windows ME



Windows ME or Windows Millenium Edition, though not a very popular version of Windows, but still it had some better tools and performance than the previous ones in some cases.

2001  Windows XP



Windows XP, the Daddy of all versions of Windows, the most popular version of windows even today. Windows XP is still used today because of its unmatched performance, tools and interface. This has been the best version of Windows till the arrival of Windows 7.

2006  Windows Vista



Windows Vista, though it didn’t go so well in the public, but still its a good version of Windows specially for the interface the Windows Aero™ Effect, making the Window Transparency work like magic.

2009  Windows 7



Windows 7, the best version of Windows till date. With the new and advanced features such as the Superbar, this version of Windows created another milestone for Microsoft after Windows 98 and Windows XP. Windows 7 features an unbeatable user interface, and powerful tools that makes it the best among the rest.

2012  Windows 8




Windows 8, to be released in the late 2012. The interface of Windows 8 as seen at the D9 Conference. A better version of Windows as proposed by Microsoft, with the changed User Interface.



--

Monday, September 26, 2011

Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!!

Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!

 

Health - Very Very Important Tips

Answer the phone by
LEFT ear .
Do not drink coffee
TWICE a day.
Do not take pills with
COOL water .
Do not have
HUGE meals after 5pm.
Reduce the amount of
OILY food you consume.
Drink more
WATER in the morning, less at night.
Keep your distance from hand phone
CHARGERS .
Do not use headphones/earphone for
LONG period of time.
Best sleeping time is from
10pm at night to 6am in the morning.
Do not lie down immediately after taking
medicine before sleeping.
When battery is down to the
LAST grid/bar, do not answer the phone as the radiation is 1000 times.

Forward this to those whom you
CARE about!

 

Here are some healthy tip for your smartness & physical fitness .  

Prevention is better than cure.


HEALTHY JUICES


Carrot + Ginger + Apple  -
Boost and cleanse our system.



Apple + Cucumber + Celery -  
Prevent cancer, reduce cholesterol, and eliminate stomach upset and headache.
 


Tomato + Carrot + Apple
- Improve skin complexion and eliminate bad breath.  


Bitter gourd + Apple + Milk
-   Avoid bad breath and reduce internal body heat.  


Orange
+ Ginger + Cucumber
- Improve Skin texture and moisture and reduce body heat.  


Pineapple + Apple + Watermelon
- To dispel excess salts, nourishes the bladder and kidney.  


Apple + Cucumber + Kiwi
- To improve skin complexion.  


Pear & Banana
-   regulates sugar content.  


Carrot + Apple + Pear + Mango
- Clear body heat, counteracts toxicity, decreased blood pressure and fight oxidization .  


Honeydew + Grape + Watermelon + Milk
- Rich in vitamin C + Vitamin B2 that increase cell activity and str engthen body immunity.  


Papaya + Pineapple + Milk
- Rich in vitamin C, E, Iron. Improve skin complexion and metabolism.  


Banana + Pineapple + Milk
- Rich in vitamin with nutritious and prevent constipation
 
 


Quite interesting!

Keep Walking.....


Jus to
check this out......
The Organs of your body have their sensory touches at the bottom of your foot, if you massage these points you will find relief from aches and pains as you can see the heart is on the left foot.




Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!(by sweet halee07 collection)
Typically they are shown as points and arrows to show which organ it connects to.

It is indeed correct since the nerves connected to these organs terminate here.

This is covered in great details in Acupressure studies or textbooks.

God created our body so well that he thought of even this. He made us walk so that we will always be pressing these pressure points and thus keeping these organs activated at all times.

So, keep walking...








Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!(by sweet halee07 collection)


Good one. Don't miss the attachments
 
Did You Know?

 

Blood type and Rh

How many people have it?

O +

40 %

O -

7 %

A +

34 %

A -

6 %

B +

8 %

B -

1 %

AB +

3 %

AB -

1 %

Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!(by sweet halee07 collection) 

 

Does Your Blood Type Reveal Your Personality?


 

 


 

Accord ing to a Japanese institute that does research on blood types, there are certain personality traits that seem to match up with certain blood types. How do you rate?

 

 


 

TYPE O

You want to be a leader, and when you see something you want, you keep striving until you achieve your goal. You are a trend-setter, loyal, passionate, and self-confident. Your weaknesses include vanity and jealously and a tendency to be too competitive.

TYPE A

You like harmony, peace and organization. You work well with others, and are sensitive, patient and affectionate. Among your weaknesses are stubbornness and an inability to relax.

TYPE B

You're a rugged individualist, who's str aightforwa rd and likes to do things your own way.  Creative and flexible, you adapt easily to any situation. But your insistence on being independent can sometimes go too far and become a weakness.

TYPE AB

Cool and controlled, you're generally well liked and always put people at ease. You're a natural entertainer who's tactful and fair. But you're standoffish, blunt, and have difficulty making decisions.

Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!(by sweet halee07 collection)

MOST IMPORTANT INFO NOW:


REGARDS, MANIKANDAN,


 

You Can Receive

If Your Type Is

O-

O+

B-

B+

A-

A+

AB-

AB+

AB+

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

AB-

YES

 

YES

 

YES

YES

 

 

A+

YES

YES

 

 

YES

YES

 

 

A-

YES

 

 

 

YES

 

 

 

B+

YES

YES

YES

YES

 

 

 

 

B-

YES

 

YES

 

 

 

 

 

O+

YES

YES

 

 

 

 

 

 

O-

YES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



KNOW ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF HAVING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
  REGARDS, MANIKANDAN,

 


 

Fruit

Benefit

Benefit

Benefit

Benefit

Benefit

 

apples

Protects your heart

prevents constipation

Blocks diarrhea

Improves lung capacity

Cushions joints

 

apricots

Combats cancer

Controls blood pressure

Saves your eyesight

Shields against Alzheimer's

Slows aging process

 

artichokes

Aids digestion

Lowers cholesterol

Protects your heart

Stabilizes blood sugar

Gua rd s against liver disease

 

avocados

Battles diabetes

Lowers cholesterol

Helps stops str okes

Controls blood pressure

Smoothes skin

 

bananas

Protects your heart

Quiets a cough

Strengthens bones

Controls blood pressure

Blocks diarrhea

 

beans

Prevents constipation

Helps hemorrhoids

Lowers cholesterol

Combats cancer

Stabilizes blood sugar

 

beets

Controls blood pressure

Combats cancer

Strengthens bones

Protects your heart

Aids weight loss

 

blueberries

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Stabilizes blood sugar

Boosts memory

Prevents constipation

 

broccoli

Strengthens bones

Saves eyesight

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Controls blood pressure

 

cabbage

Combats cancer

Prevents constipation

Promotes weight loss

Protects your heart

Helps hemorrhoids

 

cantaloupe

Saves eyesight

Controls blood pressure

Lowers cholesterol

Combats cancer

Supports immune system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health Fitness..VERY INTERESTING!!(by sweet halee07 collection)
... DRINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH

It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven a its value. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well as modern illnesses the water treatment had been found successful by a Japanese med ical society as a 100% cure for the following diseases:

Headache, body ache, heart system, arthritis, fast heart beat, epilepsy, excess fatness, bronchitis asthma, TB, meningitis, kidney and urine diseases, vomiting, ga str itis, diarrhea, piles, diabetes, constipation, all eye diseases, womb, cancer and ear nose and throat diseases.

METHOD OF TREATMENT


1. As you wake up in the morning
before brushing teeth , drink 4 x 160ml glasses of water .....interesting

2. Brush and clean the mouth but do not eat or drink anything for 45 minutes

3. After 45 minutes you may eat and drink as normal.

4. After 15 minutes of breakfast, lunch and dinner do not eat or drink anything for 2 hours

5. Those who are old or sick and are unable to drink 4 glasses of water at the beginning may commence by taking little water and gradually increase it to 4 glasses per day.

6. The above method of treatment will cure diseases of the sick and others can enjoy a healthy life.

The following list gives the number of days of treatment required to cure/control/ reduce main diseases:

1. High Blood Pressure - 30 days

2. Ga str ic - 10 days

3. Diabetes - 30 days

4. Constipation - 10 days

5. Cancer - 180 days

6. TB - 90 days

7. Arthritis patients should follow the above treatment only for 3 days in the 1st week, and from 2nd week onwa rd s - daily.

This treatment method has no side effects, however at the commencement of treatment you may have to urinate a few times.

It is better if we continue this and make this procedure as a routine work in our life.

Drink Water and Stay healthy and Active.

This makes sense .. The Chinese and Japanese drink hot tea with their meals ..not cold water. Maybe it is time we adopt their drinking habit while eating!!! Nothing to lose, everything to gain...

For those who like to drink cold water, this article is applicable to you.

It is nice to have a cup of cold drink after a meal. However, the cold water will solidify the oily stuff that you have just consumed . It will slow down the digestion.

Once this 'sludge' reacts with the acid, it will break down and be absorbed by the intestine faster than the solid food. It will line the intestine. Very soon, this will turn into fats and lead to cancer. It is best to drink hot soup or warm water after a meal.



A serious note about heart attacks
: Women should know that not every heart attack symptom is going to be the left arm hurting.

Be aware of intense pain in the jaw line.

You may never have the first chest pain during the course of a heart attack.

Nausea and intense sweating are also common symptoms.

60% of people who have a heart attack while they are asleep do not wake up.

Pain in the jaw can wake you from a sound sleep. Let's be careful and be aware. The more we know, the better chance we could survive...

A cardiologist says if everyone who gets this mail sends it to everyone they know, you can be sure that we'll save at least one life.


**Please send this article to all your friends you care about...I just did..

 

 

 


Sand Sculptures - taken at All over the World

Click the link below for viewing Sand Sculptures - taken at All over the World:

Tata Nano catches fire in Chennai, Delhi, Lucknow, Ahmedabad

மேலும் ஒரு நானோ கார் தீப்பிடித்து எரிந்தது: டெல்லியில் சம்பவம்

திங்கள்கிழமை, செப்டம்பர் 26, 2011, 12:26 [IST]

டெல்லியிலும் நேற்றிரவு நானோ கார் ஒன்று தீப்பிடித்து எரிந்ததால் பெரும் பரபரப்பு ஏற்பட்டது. இந்த சம்பவத்தில் காரை ஓட்டி வந்த இளைஞரும் அவரது சகோதரியும் அதிர்ஷ்டவசமாக உயிர் தப்பினர்.

டெல்லி, கிருஷ்ணா நகரைச் சேர்ந்தவர் நிசாந்த்(25). இவர் நேற்றிரவு தனது சகோதரி சுமாவுடன்(35) வீட்டிலிருந்து கன்னாட் ப்ளேஸ் நோக்கி தனது நானோ காரில் சென்று கொண்டிருந்தார்.

வருமான வரித்துறை அலுவலகம் அமைந்துள்ள பகுதி அருகே சென்றுகொண்டிருந்தபோது காரில் இருந்து புகை வந்துள்ளது. இதையடுத்து, காரை உடனடியாக நிறுத்திவிட்டு இருவரும் அவசரமாக கீழே இறங்கிவிட்டனர்.

அடுத்த சில நிமிடங்களில் கார் தீப்பற்றி எரியத்துவங்கியது. இதுகுறித்து, தகவலறிந்த தீயணைப்புப் படையினர் விரைந்து வந்து இரண்டு தீயணைப்பு வாகனங்களை கொண்டு காரில் பற்றிய தீயை 15 நிமிடங்கள் போராடி அணைத்தனர்.

இந்த சம்பவத்தில் நிஷாந்தும், அவரது சகோதரியும் மயிரிழையில் உயிர் தப்பினர். குஜராத், இலங்கை, சென்னை என்று அடுத்தடுத்து நானோ கார் தீப்பிடித்து எரிந்த சம்பவங்கள் நடந்துள்ள நிலையில், டெல்லியிலும் ஒரு நானோ கார் நேற்று திடீரென தீப்பிடித்து எரிந்துள்ள சம்பவம் வாடிக்கையாளர் மத்தியில் பெரும் பீதியை ஏற்படுத்தியுள்ளது.

English summary: Another Tata Nano fire incident is reported in Delhi on 25th September 11. The incident took place near ITO at around 8:15 PM Yesterday. Nishant (25), a student, and his sister Suma(35) were going to Connaught Place from their Krishna Nagar residence when the incident took place, PTI reported as police said. Similar cases were reported in Gujarat, Sri Lanka and Chennai recently. However no official word came out from the company side.

Courtesy_

Also view the following Videos at YouTube



Also read the related stories

Tata Nano could be a fire safety hazard

Agencies

India | Updated Oct 23, 2009 at 12:02pm IST

New Delhi: Three incidents of Tata Nanos catching fire have been reported putting a question mark on the safety of the world's cheapest car.

An incident was reported from Delhi on Tuesday and there have been one each from Ahmedabad and Lucknow in the past one month. All three fires reportedly started near the steering wheel.

Tata Motors says it will do a pre-check of cars to be delivered but says no re-engineering or re-designing is required.

In Lucknow a newly purchased Tata Nano car that was parked in a parking lot when it caught fire on Tuesday evening, its owner said.

Nobody was hurt in the incident, owner of the car RH Rizvi told IANS. He bought the car in July from a Lucknow based dealer.

"I parked my car in the parking lot of a shopping complex and went to buy some gifts. I was shocked when the parking attendant came rushing to me within 10 minutes saying that the car is on fire", Rizvi told IANS.

In a similar incident, another Tata Nano, belled as the world's least expensive car, caught fire in Ahmedabad early on Tuesday.

Technical experts blame the position of the battery for such incidents.

"The car battery is placed under the driver's seat and this is the most potential reason for these fire incidents," an engineer with Tata Motors in Lucknow said.

Courtesy_

Also read the related stories

Nano Catches Fire Again, Will We See A Recall?

Monday, September 26, 2011, 10:53 [IST]

The number of Tata Nano's burning down are increasing to an alarmingly high number. The latest incident has been reported from Delhi. A brother and sister according to the police has a miraculous escape after they got down the Nano just before fire engulfed it.

The people travelling the nano smelt smoke coming from the car and immediately stopped the Nano. The Tata Nano had already caught fire and two fire tenders were brought to douse the fire after 15 minutes. Not much of the car could be saved.

This is the fourth time a Tata Nano has been reported to have caught fire. It is surprising,m rather shocking that Tata Motors has not responde4d to these incidents yet. Tata Group chairman Ratan Tata had earlier said there could be a possibility of sabotage or improper use of parts. But no concrete reason has been found out yet.

Will the Tata Nano be the first Indian car to be recalled by the central government's National Auto motive Board that will be set up to monitor safety in vehicles? India does not have a recall policy and carmakers have only recalled their cars in India after they did the same in other markets.

All the fire accidents reported on the Tata Nano say the fire started in the rear where the engine is placed. Users of the Nano say they feel slight heat of the engine in the rear cabin. Does this indicate a reduced use of insulation?

Tata Motors must respond to these situations quickly or risk losing the credibility and image it has built so far.

Courtesy_

Also read the related stories

Mystery of Tata Nano catching fire continues, this time in Delhi
 
The mystery of Tata Nano catching fire continues, and Tata Motors officials too continue saying "Tata Nano is a safe car".

After Tata Nano caught fire across the country and even in Sri Lanka, yet another incident of Tata Nano catching fire was reported in New Delhi, and the victim this time was brother-sister duo. The boy named Nishant(25) who is a student was travelling alongwith his sister(35) to connaught place from their Krishna Nagar residence.

The duo smelled smoke coming out of the rear of the vehicle around 20:15 hrs yesterday, when they rushed out of the car. Soon after that the car caught fire and engulfed the vehicle.

Two firemen rushed to the place and doused the fire within 15 minutes, the brother-sister duo escaped unhurt.

In the recent incident of Tata Nano catching fire in Chennai, where a nearby passing person made the first real video of Tata Nano catching fire. 

Tata Nano engineers could not figure out the reason of fire. Can you solve this mystery of Tata Nano catching fire?

Courtesy_

Also read the related stories

Third Nano goes up in flames, this one in Delhi

Sparks from the engine turned into a fire which engulfed the car.

TNN Aug 28, 2010, 12.56am IST

NEW DELHI: Barely three months after Tata Motors certified the Nano as "absolutely safe", in a first in Delhi, a car went up in flames at a parking lot in Aurobindo Marg on Friday. The driver managed to get out on seeing sparks; in all of two minutes, only a charred frame remained.

The car, which belonged to a Supreme Court advocate, had just pulled into the parking lot around 11.30am when driver Patrick John noticed sparks coming from the rear, where the engine is located. "I was waiting in the car, having just parked it, when sparks started coming out. Thankfully, I managed to leap out of the car in time. I shudder to think what might have happened otherwise, since it was all over so fast. The entire car was destroyed in two minutes flat," said John.

Courtesy_

Also read the related stories

Tata Nano catches fire in Chennai – watch Video caught on the spot

Another Tata Nano catches fire,  now taking the fire incidents in Nano to 10.  This time the incident took place in Chennai and for the first time we have the video of a burning Tata Nano which was shot by a passerby on his mobile phone.

The video below was uploaded on YouTube by a user named samrao69. Under the same username there are two videos of the Tata Nano, one when it was emitting cloud of smoke and the other showing Nano burning in flames.

Tata Motors is yet to accept responsibility for these Nano burning cases. Tata is still saying that their car is perfect and there is no fault in it.

Courtesy_


--

Sunday, September 25, 2011

Frontline: Rich heritage of Islamic architecture

Islamic heritage

TEXT & PHOTOGRAPHS BY BENOY K. BEHL

From Kerala to Kashmir and from Tripura to Gujarat, India has a vast and rich heritage of Islamic architecture.


 
Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, 17th century.

INDIA is an enchanting land watered by the streams of compassionate philosophies since ancient times. Flourishing communities of the Islamic, Christian, Zoroastrian and Jewish faiths exist here. The Hindu, Buddhist, Jaina and Sikh faiths were born here. It has a great cosmopolitan heritage of culture and art.


 
The best-recognised monument in the Indian subcontinent is the Taj Mahal, the tomb of Arjumand Banu Begum (also known as Mumtaz Mahal), wife of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. He was also later laid to rest here. The pearly clarity of the white marble structure acquires different hues with the changing colour of light, from sunrise to sunset.

Although Mughal architecture of north India is famous, the fascinating richness of Islamic architectural heritage in other parts of the country is not so well known. The vastness of India's Islamic architectural heritage is unbelievable. India has more beautiful medieval Islamic architectural heritage than any other country. This is a fact which neither Indians nor the rest of the world is fully aware of.


 
QUTB MINAR, DELHI, early 13th century. In 1206, Mohammed Ghori was assassinated and his realm was divided among his slaves. One of them, Qutbuddin Aibak, assumed control over Delhi. He built the Qutb Minar near the Quwwat-ul-Islam ("might of Islam") mosque. One of the world's tallest minarets, it is 72.5 metres high.

It is a known fact that the most famous Islamic monument of the world, the Taj Mahal, is in India. But what is not equally well known is that one of the oldest mosques in the world is also in India, in Kerala. In fact, India has a vast and rich Islamic architectural heritage, from Kerala in the south to Kashmir in the north, from Tripura in the east to Gujarat in the west.


 
AGRA FORT, UTTAR Pradesh, 16th-17th century. Akbar, one of the greatest Mughal emperors (reign 1556-1605), was a brilliant intellectual and ruler. A remarkable monarch whose empire rivalled that of Asoka, he built a network of fortresses and palaces between 1565 and 1571. The first of these was the fort at Agra. His successors Jahangir and Shah Jahan added many sections within the fort. Here is a part of the white marble section of Agra Fort, which was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Islamic architecture is characterised by a few visible symbols. One is the arch, which frames the space; the second symbol is the dome, which looms over the skyscape; and the third is the minaret, which pierces the skies. Minarets were actually symbols in the middle of deserts. They represented fire, which was lit atop them to guide travellers. The dome represents the infinite and also the sky. As tomb architecture represents both the finite and the infinite, the dome has a very important role to play.


 
GATEWAY OF AKBAR'S Tomb, Sikandra, near Agra, Uttar Pradesh, 17th century. The impressive structure was built by his son Jahangir, who closely supervised the work, which was completed in 1613. Akbar did not impose his faith on his subjects. He forged matrimonial ties with Rajput rulers. Some of his closest confidants and advisers followed faiths other than his own.

Islam did not come to India from the north as is commonly believed. It came through Arab traders to the Malabar region in Kerala, and Muslims flourished as a trading community there. You can still see traces of that community amongst the Moplas of Kerala, who trace their ancestry to the Arabs.


 
ZIARAT OF SHAH Hamadan, Srinagar, Kashmir. In the mountainous kingdom of Kashmir, Islamic architecture was heavily influenced by ancient Hindu and Buddhist stone architecture. Wood was used extensively in the mosques and tombs of the Kashmir Valley. Shah Hamadan from Persia is known to have laid the foundations of Islam in the Kashmir Valley. The saint is deeply revered by the people. Built on the bank of the river Jhelum in Srinagar, the ziarat is a beautiful example of Kashmiri wooden architecture. It is in the ziarats of the saints of Kashmir that the people of the valley worship. Over the centuries, both Hindus and Muslims have equally revered the ziarats.

Since ancient times, India has had considerable trade contact with the Arab world. In the 1st century A.D., the Roman historian Pliny the Elder wrote about the existing routes to India and the July monsoon winds that traders used to catch to reach the Indian coast. He spoke about a ship that left the coast of Arabia and took 40 days to reach Muziris, which was then the name of present-day Kodungalloor.


 
GOL GUMBAZ, BIJAPUR, Karnataka, 17th century. The Gol Gumbaz, literally meaning "Round Dome", is one of the most impressive monuments in India. Built during the reign of Muhammad Adil Shah in the mid-17th century, it is the mausoleum of the ruler. It is one of the largest domes ever made in the world.

With the advent of Islam, Arab traders became the carriers of the new faith. The first mosque in India was built at Kodungalloor by the Chera King Cheraman Perumal in A.D. 629, within the lifetime of the Prophet. This is one of the oldest mosques in the world.


 
TOMB OF SHER Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar, 16th century. Sher Shah Suri (1486-1545) defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun in 1537 and created an empire. Even though he reigned only for five years, he laid the foundations of an Indian empire for later Mughal emperors. His lasting legacy is the Grand Trunk Road that he laid from Sonagarh in Bangladesh to Peshawar in Pakistan. Of Afghan origin, Sher Shah was born in Sasaram. His tomb is situated at the centre of an artificial lake. The location of the tomb in the middle of the water is a reference to Paradise with its plentiful waters, as described in the Quran.

Kayalpattnam is an ancient town about a kilometre from the mouth of the Tamiraparani river. Arab traders built the Kodiakarai Mosque here as early as Hijri 12, or A.D. 633. It is the first mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu and ranks among the oldest mosques in the world. Kayalpattnam has many other early mosques. In fact, Kerala on the west coast of India and Tamil Nadu on the east coast have numerous mosques, made through the ages. At Nagore, on the east coast, is one of the grandest dargahs ever made.


 
HUMAYUN'S TOMB, DELHI. It was built in the 16th century by Haji Begum, the emperor's eldest widow. It is closely related to the previous architecture of Delhi, of the 14th and 15th centuries.

Islam came to the north of India through different invasions, starting with the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni, who came as far as Gujarat. Thereafter, there was the peaceful contribution of different Sufi saints, traders and other individuals who moved to the northern region of India because of political instability or dynastic changes that were taking place in and around Central Asia and Afghanistan at that time. Gradually, a small community developed and increased its strength once Turkish rule was established in north India.


 
JAMI MASJID, CHAMPANER, Gujarat, 15th century. A new capital was built at Champaner by Sultan Mahmud Begarha towards the end of the 15th century. The Jami Masjid is one of the most striking buildings here. The symmetrical appearance of the whole is enhanced by the exquisite details of its parts. The surface is profusely decorated with fine carvings. It is one of the most exquisite monuments of Gujarat.

The Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was the first mosque built in north India, in A.D. 1193. A number of Quranic verses are beautifully etched on the mosque. Some medieval writers say they are so beautifully carved that it looks as if they are written on wax.


 
MAHMUD GAWAN MADARSA, Bidar, Karnataka, 15th century. Founded in 1472 by Mahmud Gawan, the Persian minister of Muhammad Shah III, it was built by engineers and craftsmen from Gilan on the Caspian Sea. The structure closely resembles the madrassas of Persia and Uzbekistan.

The most impressive monument in the Qutb complex in present-day Delhi is the Qutb Minar itself. It was made in the early 13th century by Qutbuddin Aibak, the sultan of Delhi. At 72.5 metres, it is one of the tallest minarets in the world. The traveller Ibn Batuta, who came to India after journeying all over the Islamic empire, starting from Africa and covering Samarkand and Damascus, has recorded that nowhere in the world has there been a minaret as impressive as the Qutb Minar.


 
STONE JAALI, MOSQUE of Sidi Saiyyad, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 16th century. One of the unique features of Islamic architecture in Gujarat is the use of intricate stone jaalis with exquisite carving. Naturalistic carvings of foliated designs with delicate leaves and shoots derive directly from earlier indigenous traditions.

Close to the Qutb complex is the tomb of Ghiyasuddin Balban, another 13th century ruler of Delhi. Balban ruled from 1266 to 1286. His tomb marks a very important development in the field of architecture. Before this tomb was built, a number of arches had been made in Indian Islamic buildings, but these were not "true arches". In Balban's tomb, for the first time in India, a keystone, which is fundamental to the true load-bearing arch, was used at the top of the arch. Subsequently, the "true arch" began to be used in numerous structures across the country.


 
BIBI KA MAQBARA, Aurangabad, 17th century. The mausoleum of Emperor Aurangzeb's wife Rabia ul Daurani was built by her son Prince Azam Shah between 1651 and 1661. Set at the centre of a charbagh enclosure, the white marble mausoleum was inspired by the Taj Mahal. It is known as the `Taj Mahal of the Deccan'.

The Alai Darwaja was built by Allauddin Khilji as part of the extension of the Qutb complex in 1305. It is very fascinating from the point of view of architecture. In the 13th century, owing to Mongol attacks in West Asia and Central Asia, a large number of craftsmen had to flee from their lands. Many of them were given refuge in this part of India and were very fruitfully employed in the making of the Alai Darwaja. We see here the introduction of the horseshoe arch in Indian monuments.

The Deccan

Meanwhile, Islamic influence continued to grow further south, in the Deccan. The end of the 15th century saw the establishment of five sultanates in the Deccan: Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda, Bidar and Berar. The sultan of Bijapur was a descendant of the Ottoman dynasty of Istanbul. The sultan of Golconda was a Turkman prince who had taken refuge in India. The sultans were followers of the Shia sect of Islam and were close allies of the Safavid rulers of Iran. A distinct culture thus developed in the cosmopolitan community of the Deccan.


 
JAMA MASJID, JUNAGARH, Sourashtra, Gujarat, originally built in the 13th century. Junagarh is located at the foothills of the Girnar hills. The name literally means "old fort". The plan of this is in the Arab style, which was not repeated in Gujarat after its subsequent conquest by the Delhi Sultanate.

The streets of the Deccani sultanates were filled with Turks, Persians, Arabs and Africans. In India, the Deccan became the greatest centre of Arabic learning and literature. In fact, Iran and Central Asia only had single courts. If you were a soldier, a religious figure, an intellectual or an artistic person and you could not find a sponsor in what is now Iran or Uzbekistan, chances were that you could find some sort of patronage in the Deccan. Thus there was a continuous migration of people, ideas and artistic devices from the Near East to the Deccan.

A remarkable example of an architectural transplant from Central Asia is the madrassa of Mahmud Gawan, in Bidar, built at the end of the 15th century. It would be very hard to tell the difference between this and the madrassas of Uzbekistan or eastern Iran. The similarities between the two are not only in form or in other architectural elements such as corner minarets, the square courtyard in the middle and four great arched portals, but also in the decorations of the exterior with blue-and-white tiles.

Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II ruled Bijapur from 1580 to 1627. He was a contemporary of the Mughal emperor Akbar. A visit to his rauza, or tomb, is a pilgrimage for someone deeply interested in Indian art, for some of the finest miniature paintings ever made in India were made during his rule.


 
IBRAHIM RAUZA COMPLEX, Bijapur, Karnataka, 17th century. The monumental heritage of the Deccan is distinctive and quite different from that of the Mughals. The architectural styles that are seen in Bijapur, Bidar, Gulbarga and Hyderabad are closely related to those of Persia and Turkey. Ibrahim Adil Shah II ruled the kingdom of Bijapur from 1580 to 1627. He was one of the most humane and cosmopolitan kings in history. He was a magnanimous patron of the arts. Painting, poetry and music flourished during his reign. In his autobiography, the great sultan calls himself the "son of Ganesa", a Hindu deity.

The Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur is the tomb of Sultan Muhammad Adil Shah, who ruled from A.D. 1627 to 1657. This is the largest dome ever built in the Islamic world. It is the second largest dome in the world, after the one at Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. It measures 37.92 metres on the inside.

The massive Bidar fort was built in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is one of the most formidable forts in the country. It has walls that run for 5.5 km around. Inside, it has beautiful palaces, two mosques, a madrassa, ornamental gardens and hamams.


 
TURKISH MAHAL, BIDAR Fort, Karnataka, 15th-16th century.

Timur, when he came to India, was struck by the beauty of its historical cities. In his autobiography, Malfujaate Taimoori, he says, "I ordered that all the artisans and clever mechanics who are masters of their respective crafts should be picked out from among the prisoners and set aside. And accordingly some thousands of craftsmen were selected to await my command. I had determined to build a Masjid-e-Jami in Samarkand, the seat of my empire, which should be without rival in any country. So I ordered that all the builders and stonemasons of India should be set apart for my own special service." In some other records it is said that he took about 3,000 artisans from India and employed them in the construction of the Jami Masjid at Samarkand.

Mughal architecture

The dynasty founded by Babur became one of the greatest the world had seen. It ruled a vast empire whose fame spread far and wide. The culture and the art it created helped shape future developments in all spheres of life in the Indian subcontinent.

Humayun's Tomb, which might be considered the first great masterpiece of the Mughals, is very much related to the previous architecture of Delhi. It is closely linked to the Lodhi and Tuglaq architectures of the 14th and 15th centuries. Mughal architecture presents us with a fusion of local elements, building techniques, styles and traditions with imported traditions and styles. The genius of Mughal architecture is that it sustained this incredibly rich mingling of different traditions throughout its history.

Agra was the imperial capital of Akbar in the mid-16th century. The fort here was one of the most powerful in north India. In 1565, Emperor Akbar ordered the reconstruction of the fort. The fort has palaces of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan. The most prominent among all the structures are the white marble buildings of Shah Jahan. The Khas Mahal, made of pure marble, is one of these elegant buildings. It is flanked by the palaces of Shah Jahan's daughters Roshanara and Jahanara.


 
THE BIDAR FORT is one of the most impressive forts in the country. Completed in 1532, it was the largest architectural undertaking of the Bahamanid dynasty. It has palaces, two mosques, a madrassa and many royal tombs inside.

In 1571, Emperor Akbar decided to build a new capital city. And a magnificent city was built at a site not very far from Agra. It was called Fatehpur Sikri. This was Akbar's most ambitious architectural project. By the end of the 16th century, there were a quarter of a million people living in the new city.

In the building of Fatehpur Sikri, no cost was too much, no effort too great, for Akbar. He wished to build the city true to his conception. As a matter of fact, miniature paintings of that period show the emperor amidst the workers, supervising the construction of the city himself. Fatehpur Sikri is one of the best ordered and symmetrically laid-out cities of the entire medieval world.

The world's best-known tomb stands testimony to a timeless love story. The Taj Mahal was built in 1648 by the Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Arjumand Banu Begum, known to the world as Mumtaz Mahal. The construction of the Taj Mahal was a stupendous engineering feat. It is built of marble and is finely inlaid with semi-precious stones. As many as 20,000 workers and master craftsmen laboured for 17 years to erect this magnificent edifice. Several hundreds of mosques and Islamic tombs of great beauty are spread throughout India.


Coming to the west of the country, in Gujarat is the World Heritage Site of Champaner of the 15th century. In the east there is the impressive Nakhoda Masjid and several others in Kolkata. There are famous dargahs in Hajo and other places in Assam. In the north-eastern region of India, in Agartala in Tripura is the beautiful Gedu Mia Ki Masjid.

In the mountainous State of Kashmir, Islamic architecture was influenced by ancient Hindu and Buddhist traditions. The resultant form was combined with influences from Persia and Turkistan. Wood was used extensively in the mosques and tombs of Kashmir.

India has a vast, living heritage of Islamic architecture. These monuments are a great treasure of India's culture and many of them are recognised as World Heritage Monuments. We see in these the confluence of local talent and inspiration from Iran, Arabia and Central Asia. These mosques, tombs, madrassas, palaces and fortresses are a unique heritage of Islamic architecture.



Courtesy_

http://www.frontlineonnet.com

-- 
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Disclaimer


Collection of important and burning Topics, News from all Dailies, Fortnight Magazines, etc., in order to highlight its importance to the viewers and also to keep it as ready reckoner by them so as to access it quickly from the concerned Sources which we quote them at the bottom of each Posts so as to extend our gratitude towards the Author of that Posts in their releases.



Followers

Search our Blog here

Google
 


News Feed from Various Dailies



THE HINDU - News Update

Expressbuzz - Columnists

Expressbuzz - Tamil Nadu

தினமணி: மெய்யாலுமா...? அரசியல் கிசுகிசு

Dinamani - Headlines

Dinamani - Politics

Dinamani - Tamil Nadu

Dinamani - Pondicherry

Dinamani - Cuddalore

Labels

Pondicherry (135) Tamil Nadu (130) ARTICLE (103) Editorial (91) aiadmk (63) jayalalithaa (59) dinamani (55) dmk (53) Karunanidhi (33) india (30) Ariankuppam (29) chief minister of tamil nadu (27) the hindu (27) railway (26) Congress (23) Dinamalar (22) Supreme Court (22) THE HINDU (22) southeren railway (22) Nuclear (21) chennai (21) US (20) wikipedia (20) Rain (19) frontline (19) PMK (18) Pratiba (18) President (18) karnataka (18) Education (17) Train (17) Elections (16) sri lanka (16) 2013 (15) 2012 (14) Madras High Court (14) 123 Agreement (13) Road (13) bangalore (13) election commission (13) nuke deal (13) Advocates (12) BEHS (12) Bridge (12) Facebook (12) Google (12) NPT (12) Politics (12) Youtube (12) 2010 (11) Interview (11) Legislative Assembly (11) Traffic (11) Video (11) abdul kalam (11) Accidents (10) Parliament (10) Private Schools (10) Tamil Eelam (10) police (10) BJP (9) Cuddalore District (9) Death (9) Environment (9) 2014 (8) BG Conversion (8) Ban (8) Website (8) water (8) water resources (8) Communist Parties (7) Examination (7) Flight (7) Government (7) Mayiladudurai (7) Pakistan (7) River (7) Schools (7) The New Indian Express (7) UNO (7) USA (7) Villupuram (7) ground water (7) prime minister (7) Andhra Pradesh (6) Beach (6) Car (6) Cauvery (6) Children (6) Coimbatore (6) Court (6) Cricket (6) Jaya TV (6) Lok Sabha (6) Mobile Phones (6) Strike (6) cellphones (6) 10th Exam (5) Dinakaran (5) High Court (5) MGR (5) MLAs (5) Municipality (5) One Year Performance (5) Online (5) Petrol (5) Plastic (5) Political Party (5) Progress Card (5) RBI (5) Sethusamudram (5) Sports (5) Sun TV (5) banks (5) lawyers (5) madras (5) russia (5) temple (5) CEC (4) Corporation (4) Credit Card (4) DMDK (4) Foods (4) Health (4) International (4) MDMK (4) Makkal TV (4) Mumbai (4) Nuclear standoff (4) PIB (4) Prices (4) SSLC (4) Sethu (4) Surgery (4) TIPS (4) TV (4) Tamil (4) Time Table (4) Vaiko (4) World Water Day (4) chief minister (4) computer (4) kerala (4) 2011 (3) 3rd World War (3) Actor (3) Adulterated items (3) Agriculture (3) Airport (3) Anti-Corruption (3) BSNL (3) Bandh (3) Bragadeeswara Temple (3) Britain (3) Cabinet Minister (3) Civil Supplies Department (3) Constitution (3) Cr.P.C. (3) Daily Thanthi (3) Dasara festival (3) EVMs (3) Garbage (3) Gazette (3) Helmets (3) Hospital (3) I-Day (3) IPC (3) IT (3) Ice (3) Kalaignar TV (3) Kiran Bedi (3) Kollidam (3) Lieutenant Governor (3) MPs (3) Marina Beach (3) Medical (3) Microsoft (3) Mini Flight (3) Mysore (3) Panruti (3) Photos (3) Politicians (3) Pollution (3) Pranab Mukherjee (3) Public Exam (3) RTI Act (3) Raj TV (3) Rajiv Gandhi (3) Schoolboy (3) Smoking (3) Sonia Gandhi (3) South Africa (3) Speaker (3) Tanjore (3) Teacher (3) Telangana (3) Telephone (3) UNPA (3) Vijayakant (3) Yahoo (3) cbi (3) delhi (3) gujarat (3) mssrf (3) newspaper (3) planet (3) salem division (3) times of india (3) 1000 Rupee Note (2) 12th Exam (2) ATM (2) Aadhar Card (2) Advertisements (2) AirTel (2) Assembly Meeting (2) BESCOM (2) Birth Certificate (2) Botanical Garden (2) Boycott (2) Bus Stand (2) CCTVs (2) CJI (2) CPI (2) CPM (2) Cadres (2) Cancer (2) Christians (2) Church (2) Cigarettes (2) Compensation (2) Complaint (2) Cyclone (2) DTH (2) Daily Telegraph (2) Dams (2) Death Anniversary (2) Debates (2) Debit Card (2) Driving (2) ECR (2) Earth (2) Electricity (2) Eye (2) Fire (2) Floods (2) Fonseka (2) Foreign Nations (2) Foreigners (2) Four Track Road (2) Full Moon (2) Genocide (2) Global Warming (2) Govt. Staffs (2) Green (2) Guru (2) Heart (2) Heritage buildings (2) Highways (2) Hogenakkal (2) Home Minister (2) Home Ministry (2) Hyderabad (2) ICICI (2) IT Capital (2) Independence (2) Judges (2) Katchatheevu Island (2) Kerala High Court (2) LORRY (2) LPG Gas Connection (2) Law College (2) Legislative Assembly Complex (2) London (2) Losses (2) M.K.Stalin (2) Maalaimalar (2) Mahe (2) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2) Medicine (2) Mega TV (2) Moon (2) Motor Vehicles (2) Municipal waste (2) Musharraf (2) NASA (2) NDTV (2) Nagapattinam (2) Narendra Modi (2) National Highways (2) Nepal (2) Notifications (2) Obama (2) Pamban (2) Parking Place (2) Passport (2) Pazha Nedumaaran (2) Phones (2) Portfolios (2) Pratibha Patil (2) Private TV Channels (2) RBI Governor (2) RTO (2) Railway Minister (2) Rajya Sabha (2) Ramanathapuram (2) Ramdoss (2) Rameswaram (2) Ration Card (2) Rename (2) Reservation (2) Rivers Inter-link (2) Rowdies (2) Royal Cable Vision (2) Rule of Law (2) S.K.Upadhyay (2) SAARC (2) Sachin (2) Salary (2) Satellite (2) School Van (2) Sea Level Rising (2) Search Engine (2) Somnath Chatterjee (2) Speech (2) Subramanian Swamy (2) Sumangali Cable Vision (2) T.R.Baalu (2) TRAI (2) Tamil Murasu (2) Tax issues (2) Tea (2) Telecom (2) Theft (2) Tibet (2) Tiruchi (2) Tiruchirapalli (2) Tirupur District (2) Tobacco (2) Tourism (2) Veeranam Lake (2) Vellore (2) Vellore Jail (2) Vice President (2) Vigilance (2) Voters' List (2) Woman (2) World Heritage (2) World Tour (2) bangaladesh (2) eTicket (2) iTicket (2) kizhur (2) madurai (2) minister (2) monuments (2) o.paneerselvam (2) security (2) states (2) technology (2) television (2) vkc (2) கச்சத்தீவு (2) 100 feet Road (1) 10th Schedule (1) 11-storey Building (1) 16th World Editors' Forum (1) 1996 (1) 2001 (1) 2007 (1) 2008 (1) 2009 (1) 60 Years (1) 62nd World Newspaper Congress (1) 75 years of history (1) A.P.Hithendran (1) AC Bus (1) AIIMS (1) Abbreviations (1) Act (1) Actor Vijay (1) Adichanallur (1) Advertisement (1) Advocate Durai (1) Aerobridge (1) Agitation (1) Agricultural Lands (1) Ahmedabad blasts (1) Alert (1) Alive (1) Ambassador (1) Anbumani Ramadoss (1) Animation (1) Anna (1) Announcement (1) Annual Day (1) Anti-conversion (1) Apollo Hospitals (1) Application Form (1) Applications (1) Archaeology (1) Army (1) Art.370 (1) Asif Ali Zardari (1) Assam (1) Assassin (1) Assassination (1) Attestation (1) Auditor (1) Aurobindo Ashram (1) Australia (1) BCCI (1) BPL (1) Baby (1) Badminton (1) Baggage missing (1) Bahour (1) Bankruptcy (1) Bar Council of India (1) Barricades (1) Battery (1) Beggers (1) Bhubaneswar Express (1) Bihar (1) Bike (1) Bill (1) Birth centenary (1) Black Film (1) Blogger News Network (1) Body (1) Book Fair (1) Booking Rules (1) Bribe (1) Bricks (1) British (1) Browser (1) Budget Session (1) Burnt (1) Buses (1) Business Line (1) Busisness (1) CAG (1) CEO (1) CMDA (1) CMRP (1) CMs Conference (1) CNN IBN (1) Calendar (1) Car Festival (1) Car goes up in flames (1) Cash Transaction Tax (1) Cataract (1) Cauvery Tribunal Award (1) Census (1) Chairman (1) Chalukyas (1) Change of Mobile (1) Charge Sheet (1) Chennai (South) Forum (1) Chennai Cricket Club (1) Chennai Metro Rail Project (1) Chidambaram (1) Chief Secretary (1) Child Pornography (1) China (1) Chinna Veerampattinam Beach (1) Chiranjeevi (1) Christmas (1) Chunnambar River (1) Cinema (1) Circular (1) Civil Judge (1) Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill (1) Clash (1) Climate Change (1) Clonning (1) Closing (1) Cochin (1) Cock (1) Collector (1) Colleges (1) Colonial Rule (1) Comedian (1) Commune Panchayat (1) Companies (1) Compulsory military service (1) Consumer (1) Consumer goods (1) Contempt (1) Conversion (1) Convicts (1) Cooum (1) Copenhagen (1) Copenhagen Accord (1) Copyright (1) Courses (1) Daily Pioneer (1) Dayanidhi Maran (1) Defamation (1) Delhi High Court (1) Demise (1) Demolition (1) Derogatory remarks (1) Development Index for States (1) Devotional (1) Dhoti (1) Diamond Jubilee (1) Dina Thanthi (1) Dinamani Newspaper (1) Director (1) Diseases (1) Disney TV (1) Disqualification (1) Disrespect (1) Do's and Dont's (1) Doctors (1) Don Bosco School (1) Double Decker (1) Download (1) Dowry (1) Drainage (1) Dress Code (1) Drowned (1) Drunken (1) Dust bin (1) ECI (1) EU (1) EVKS Elangovan (1) Earth quake (1) Ebola virus disease (1) Egg (1) Egmore (1) Elocution Competition (1) Emergency (1) Employment (1) Engineer (1) English (1) Extension (1) FC (1) FDI (1) FII (1) FPR Waste (1) Fake Identiy Cards (1) Fakes (1) Family Name (1) Farm Lands (1) Fast Food Stalls (1) Fatal injury (1) Faulty Printing (1) Federal Police (1) Fees (1) Fellowship Award (1) Fever (1) Finance Minister (1) Finger Prints (1) First Name (1) Fishermen (1) Flower Show (1) Foreign Ministers (1) Former Minister (1) Fort (1) Fort St. George (1) Forum Mall (1) Free of Cost (1) French Diviner (1) Fuel (1) Funeral ceremony (1) GSLV (1) Galaxy (1) Ganesha Pandals (1) Gangaikondacholapuram (1) Garib Rath (1) Gazetted Officers (1) German Architects (1) Germany (1) Gingee Fort (1) Given Name (1) Gmail (1) Goa (1) Goods Train (1) Goondas Act (1) Goons (1) Gopalsamy (1) Governor (1) Greetings (1) Guardian Newspapers Limited (1) Guru Peyarchi Palan (1) Guruvalaya Sports Coaching Centre (1) Guwahati (1) HSRP Number Plates (1) HSc (1) Half-ticket (1) Hawkers (1) Helicopter (1) Hen (1) Hindus (1) Hindustan Times (1) Home Page (1) Hotel (1) Hotmail (1) Howrah Superfast Express (1) Humanism (1) Humanity (1) Hyderabad Twin Blasts (1) IAS (1) IATR (1) IBSA (1) ICC (1) ICC World Cup 2007 (1) ICJ (1) IMCHRC (1) IMDT Act (1) IRCTC (1) IRDAI (1) ISRO (1) IT Act (1) Identiy Cards (1) Images (1) Independence Day (1) India Guinness records (1) Indian Kanoon (1) Indian Rupee (1) Inflation (1) Insects (1) Insurance premium (1) Internet (1) Investment (1) Investors (1) Iran (1) Israel (1) JIPMER (1) Jammu & Kashmir (1) Jammu & Kashmir High Court (1) Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (1) Japan (1) Job (1) Journey (1) Judicial Staffs (1) Judiciary (1) Jupiter (1) Justice Dalveer Bhandari (1) KAMBAR (1) Kachatheevu (1) Kachchathivu island (1) Kalaimagal Vizha (1) Kallanai (1) Kalrayan Hills (1) Kamal Nath (1) Kamarajar (1) Kamban Kalai Arangam (1) Kandasamy (1) Kapil Sibal (1) Karaikal-Nagoor (1) Kazhugumalai (1) Keerthiga (1) Kerla (1) Kids (1) Kingfisher (1) Kolar Gold Field (1) Kovaithambi (1) L.K.advani (1) LTTE (1) Lake (1) Lalu (1) Landline Phones (1) Levy (1) Licenses (1) Life Jackets (1) Lord Shiva (1) Lung disease (1) M-Sand (1) M.K.Alagiri (1) M.S.Gill (1) MCI (1) MET (1) MLC (1) MRP (1) MSO (1) MV Act (1) MYLAI (1) MYLAPORE (1) Madikrishnapuram (1) Madurai Bench (1) Madurai Corporation (1) Madurai Ramu (1) Mahabalipuram (1) Maharashtra (1) Mailam (1) Malaysian Airlines (1) Malladi Krishnarao (1) Mamata Banerjee (1) Manapet Govt. School (1) Mangalore (1) Mangalore Express (1) Manirathnam (1) Marriages (1) Mars (1) Matriculation (1) Matrimony (1) Mayor (1) Meets (1) Melodies Songs (1) Metro Train (1) Mettur Dam (1) Microsoft Office 2010 (1) Middle Name (1) Mississippi (1) Misuse of pro-women law (1) Modi (1) Monarchy (1) Monetary (1) Moot Court (1) Mosquitoes (1) Moulivakkam (1) Mukumbu (1) Mullaiperiyar Dam (1) Mullaperiyar Dam (1) Mumbai Dadar Chalukya Express (1) Murali (1) Murder case (1) Murugan (1) Muscle power (1) Muslims (1) Mysore Palace (1) N.Ram (1) NATO (1) NGO (1) NH (1) NHAI (1) NSK alias N.S.Krishnan (1) Nalini (1) Namathu MGR (1) Namma Ooru Seythi (1) Nanauk (1) Nandhi (1) Narayana Murthy (1) National Crime Records Bureau (1) National Security Act (1) Natural (1) Natwar Singh (1) Naxalites (1) Nehru Street (1) Nelson (1) New Delhi Superfast Express (1) New Year (1) Night Hours (1) Nostradamus (1) November 1 (1) Numbers (1) ODF (1) ODI (1) OPS (1) Ocean (1) Offers (1) Office Bearers (1) Old Prison (1) Old Songs (1) Olympics (1) Open Defecation Free (1) Open Page (1) Organ Transplant Operation (1) Ottavio Quattrocchi (1) Oussudu Lake (1) Overbridge (1) P.B.Sreenivas (1) P.Chidambaram (1) PBS (1) PIN Number (1) PMC (1) PONTEX (1) PRTC (1) PSLV (1) PTI (1) Paintings (1) Palakkad (1) Palani (1) Pallineliyanur (1) Pamphlets (1) Parents (1) Patta (1) Pennayar River (1) People's President (1) Perarivalan (1) Philosopher (1) Phone tapping (1) Physical Map (1) Pillaiyarkuppam (1) Pillayarkuppam (1) Planning Commission (1) Playback singer (1) Poisonous (1) Pollution Under Control Certificate (1) Pondicherry Code (1) Ponlait Milk Society (1) Poongothai (1) Porur Lake (1) Post Office (1) Postal Savings (1) Poverty (1) Power Generation (1) Prakash Karat (1) Prison (1) Privacy (1) Private Clinic (1) Priyanka (1) Proclaimed Offender (1) Property Tax (1) Prosecution (1) Prospectus (1) Protest (1) Public Meetings (1) Public Servant (1) Puli Devan (1) Pumpkin (1) Punjab (1) Puthiya Thalaimurai TV (1) Puzzle (1) Questions (1) RJD (1) RTE Act (1) Radiation (1) Raghuram Rajan (1) Railway Bridge (1) Raja (1) Raja Kannappan (1) Rajasulochana (1) Ramarajan (1) Real Name (1) Recovery Agents (1) Reddiarpalayam (1) Rejoinder (1) Release (1) Religion (1) Remand (1) Renovation (1) Reply in Tamil (1) Republic Day (1) Reshuffle (1) Results (1) Retirement (1) Riots (1) River Sand (1) Robo Sand (1) Rs.10 Food (1) Rule 417-A (1) S.Ve.Sekar (1) SBI (1) SEBI (1) SEZs (1) SP (1) SRC (1) Sachar Commission (1) Salem Railway Division (1) Sand quarries (1) Sand quarry issue (1) Saneeswarar (1) Sarkaria Commission (1) Sathankulam (1) Saturn (1) Saudia Arabia (1) Save Tamil (1) Scandal (1) Schedule (1) Sea Route (1) Self-attestation (1) Sex (1) Sharad Pawar (1) Sharekhan (1) Shilma Railway (1) Shimoga District (1) Ship (1) Shopping Malls (1) Shuttlecock (1) Signal (1) Sikh Temple (1) Singer (1) Sivanthi Adityan (1) Skulls (1) Smart Card (1) Social Network (1) Software (1) Sonia (1) Sony (1) Sornavur Anaicut (1) Spectrum (1) SpiceJet (1) Sree Nivas Tower (1) Sri Krishna Report (1) Sri Rangam (1) Sriharikota (1) State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (1) Statue (1) Stlain (1) Sub Registrar (1) Subramania Bharati (1) Summer Vacation (1) Sun (1) Sun Halo (1) Superfast Train (1) Surname (1) Survey Department (1) Suspension (1) Swine flu (1) Symbol (1) T.Kritinan (1) TATA (1) TATA Sumo (1) TNEB (1) TNPSC (1) Taluk (1) Tamil Actor (1) Tariff hiked (1) Terrace House Gardening (1) Thane (1) Thanjavur (1) Thenkinnam (1) Thirukkural (1) Thirumurai (1) Thirunallar (1) Thothukudi (1) Time-Table (1) Tindivanam (1) Tirunallar (1) Tirupati Train (1) Titanium (1) Toll-free number (1) Tornado (1) Transfer Certificate (1) Transferred Ticket (1) Transport Department (1) Trees (1) Tuticorin (1) Twitter (1) Two Youths (1) Two-wheeler (1) UK (1) UNESCO (1) UPA (1) Uchimedu (1) Union Council of Ministers (1) Universe (1) University (1) Unlimited Night Calls (1) Unmanned Level Crossing (1) Unreserved Compartments (1) Uppalam (1) V.Narayanasamy (1) VCK (1) VETA (1) VIP (1) VOC (1) Vacuum Cleaner (1) Vaigai (1) Vamba Keerapalayam (1) Vedharanyam (1) Vehicles (1) Video-conferencing (1) Vidhana Soudha (1) Village (1) Villianur (1) Visa (1) Volley Ball Cup (1) WHO (1) WTC (1) WTO (1) War (1) Wedding (1) Whales (1) Women Police (1) Women's Right and Status (1) Women’s Reservation Bill (1) World Bank (1) World Records (1) World Tamil Conference (1) Yanam (1) Yesvantpur Garib Rath (1) argentina (1) atomic energy (1) azhagiri (1) bifurcation (1) bofors pay off case (1) buddhist (1) channels (1) child abuse (1) cyber crime (1) cyber security (1) e-Library (1) forensic laboratory (1) google sky (1) hyde act (1) i (1) india today (1) indira Gandhi (1) indus valley civilisation (1) information (1) ipod (1) jains (1) katnataka (1) koil (1) kudankulam (1) lectronic Voting Machines (1) mamalla (1) money lender (1) moscow (1) mumbai riot (1) rangasamy (1) salem (1) sculptor (1) telefilm (1) trucks (1) wordpress (1) அரியாங்குப்பம் (1) ஆதிச்சநல்லூர் (1) இதயக்கோவில் (1) எபோலா தீநுண்ம நோய் (1) கல்வராயன் மலைகள் (1) கல்வி சாதனையாளர் பட்டயம் (1) குடுவை ஆறு (1) சங்கரதாஸ் சுவாமிகளின் நாடக சபா (1) சிவராந்தகம் (1) சுழல் காற்று (1) தமிழர் உணவகம் (1) நுரையீரல் நோய் (1) பயிர்களை பராமரிப்பது எப்படி? (1) புதுவை மெரினா பீச் (1) பொக்கிஷம் (1) மணிரத்னம் (1) மலட்டு நிலம் (1) ராஜசுலோசனா (1) வாஞ்சி மணியாச்சி ரயில் நிலையம் (1) வாஞ்சிநாதன் (1)