Friday, March 2, 2007

Of plate tectonics, quakes and tsunamis

Of plate tectonics, quakes and tsunamis

R. RAMACHANDRAN

THE total energy released in the mega earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale off the Sumatra coast on December 26 was of the order of 20 x 1017 Joules or 475 megatons of the explosive trinitrotoluene, or the equivalent of 23,000 atom bombs, such as the one that destroyed Hiroshima. The total energy released in the last of the series of explosions of the Krakatoa volcano in Indonesia in 1883, which caused the biggest sound that humanity has ever heard, and the largest Tsunami known till now, was 8.4 x 1017 J or 200 megatons. Such are the scales of energy that accumulate in various spots of the earth's crust over time which are released through massive geological phenomena such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions.

LUCY PEMONI /REUTERS

A geophysicist with the National Weather Service Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii demonstrates how the shifting of tectonic plates under the earth can create tsunamis in the `Ring of Fire' zone which rims the Pacific Ocean.

The rigid outermost layer of the earth, comprising the crust and the semi-solid upper mantle, is called the lithosphere. The thickness of the crust varies from about 10 km under the oceans to about 100 km under the continents. The crust is not one piece, but is made of plates that vary in size - from a few hundred kilometres to thousands of kilometres. At present the earth's crust is divided into eight large plates and about two dozen smaller ones, which are drifting above the mantle at the rate of about 5-10 cm a year. These irregularly shaped plates slide over, under and past each other on top of the partly molten inner layer.

Plate tectonics involve the formation, lateral movement, interaction and destruction of these lithospheric plates. The plate motion is driven by some unconfirmed mechanism, perhaps thermal convection. Much of Earth's internal heat is relieved through this process, resulting in the formation of many of the earth's large structural and topographic features. The eight large plates are the African, the Antarctic, the Eurasian, the Indian-Australian, the Nazca, the North American, the Pacific and the South American. The smaller ones include the Anatolian, the Caribbean, the Cocos, the Philippine, the Burmese, the Sunda and the Somali plates.

As plates come into contact, the crust is continuously stressed. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulated energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the earth, caused by this abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. Most earthquakes occur at the boundaries where the plates meet. In fact, the locations of earthquakes and the kinds of ruptures they produce help in the definition of plate boundaries.

There are three types of plate boundaries: spreading zones, transform faults and subduction zones. At subduction zones, molten rock rises, pushing two plates apart and adding new material at their edges. Most spreading zones are found in oceans - the mid-oceanic ridges - and these usually give rise to earthquakes at shallow depths of less than 30 km. Transform faults result when plates slide past one another. Earthquakes at these interfaces also tend to occur at shallow depths.

Subduction zones are those where one plate overrides, or plunges under (subducts), another, pushing it downward into the mantle where it melts. The Sumatra-Andaman region in the Indian Ocean is characterised by subduction where the Australian-Indian oceanic plate goes under the Andaman plate or Burmese micro-plate in a north-eastern direction. These zones are characterised by deep-ocean trenches (the Sunda Trench in this case) shallow to deep earthquakes and mountain ranges containing active volcanoes.

Earthquakes can also happen within plates but only less than 10 per cent of all quakes occur within plate interiors. As plates evolve over geological time scales and boundaries change, weakened boundary regions can become part of plate interiors and form sources of earthquakes in response to stresses that build up at plate edges or within the crust.

The stresses that build up in the crust can be classified according to the kind of movement along the plates; boundaries (a) pulling away from each other, (b) sliding sideways relative to one another and (c) pushing against one another. All these movements are associated with earthquakes. The areas of stress at plate boundaries, which release accumulated energy by slipping or rupturing, are called faults. A fault is basically a planar zone of weakness that passes through the crust. The plates rebound (usually in opposite directions of the fault) as the strain is relieved.

Normal faults occur in response to movement (a) when the overlying block slips down the dip of the fault plane. Thrust (reverse) faults occur in response to (c) when there is compression or squeezing. Strike-slip (lateral) faults occur in response to either type of stress, the blocks moving horizontally past one another. Most faulting in spreading zones is normal, along subduction zones is thrust and along transform faults is strike-slip. Indeed, major earthquakes occur only at subduction zones, the Sumatra quake at the Sunda subduction zone being the biggest mega thrust event in recent times, the likes of which are unlikely to occur for centuries perhaps.

It is the earthquakes beneath the ocean floor that can lead to tsunamis. However, it must be borne in mind that not all submarine earthquakes, including large magnitude ones, cause tsunamis. Usually tsunamis result when there is subduction resulting in the uplifting of the sea floor that produces violent vertical displacement of the overlying water body whose effect propagates as long wavelength waves carrying huge volumes of water at enormous speeds of 700-900 km/hr. The degree of motion depends on how fast the earthquake occurred and how efficiently the energy was transmitted to the water. Since scientists cannot predict earthquakes, tsunamis also cannot be predicted.

Of course, an earthquake is only one of the geological phenomena that can cause tsunamis. The second most common cause is a landslide, either occurring under water or above the sea and then plunging into water. The third major cause of tsunamis are volcanic activity. The flank of a volcano, located near the shore or underwater, may be uplifted or depressed, similar to the action of a fault. Or, as in the Krakatoa event, the volcano may actually explode and the violent explosions may cause large sea floor disturbances similar to earthquakes.

Volcanoes are a mechanism by which earth's internal energy is released. They are basically vents or chimneys to the surface from a reservoir of molten rocks in the earth's crust. The basic ingredients of a volcano are molten rock (magma) and the accumulation of gases below an active volcanic vent, which may be either on land or below the sea. Abrupt increase in seismic activity in the vicinity of an active volcano often heralds a volcanic eruption. The location and movement of swarms of tremors indicate the movement of magma through the volcano. Monitoring and detection of these can enable short-range predictions of volcanic eruptions.

Courtesy_
Frontline

Vol:22 Iss:02
URL: http://www.flonnet.com/fl2202/stories/20050128003511800.htm


No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Compiled by

Disclaimer


Collection of important and burning Topics, News from all Dailies, Fortnight Magazines, etc., in order to highlight its importance to the viewers and also to keep it as ready reckoner by them so as to access it quickly from the concerned Sources which we quote them at the bottom of each Posts so as to extend our gratitude towards the Author of that Posts in their releases.



Followers

Search our Blog here

Google
 


News Feed from Various Dailies



THE HINDU - News Update

Expressbuzz - Columnists

Expressbuzz - Tamil Nadu

தினமணி: மெய்யாலுமா...? அரசியல் கிசுகிசு

Dinamani - Headlines

Dinamani - Politics

Dinamani - Tamil Nadu

Dinamani - Pondicherry

Dinamani - Cuddalore

Labels

Pondicherry (131) Tamil Nadu (129) ARTICLE (103) Editorial (91) aiadmk (62) jayalalithaa (59) dinamani (55) dmk (53) Karunanidhi (33) india (30) Ariankuppam (29) chief minister of tamil nadu (27) the hindu (27) railway (25) Congress (23) Supreme Court (22) THE HINDU (22) southeren railway (22) Dinamalar (21) Nuclear (21) chennai (21) US (20) Rain (19) frontline (19) wikipedia (19) PMK (18) Pratiba (18) President (18) karnataka (18) Train (17) Education (16) Elections (16) sri lanka (16) 2013 (15) 2012 (14) 123 Agreement (13) Madras High Court (13) Road (13) bangalore (13) election commission (13) nuke deal (13) Advocates (12) BEHS (12) Bridge (12) Facebook (12) Google (12) NPT (12) Politics (12) Youtube (12) 2010 (11) Interview (11) Legislative Assembly (11) Traffic (11) Video (11) abdul kalam (11) Accidents (10) Parliament (10) Private Schools (10) Tamil Eelam (10) police (10) BJP (9) Cuddalore District (9) Death (9) Environment (9) 2014 (8) BG Conversion (8) Ban (8) Website (8) water (8) water resources (8) Communist Parties (7) Examination (7) Flight (7) Government (7) Mayiladudurai (7) Pakistan (7) River (7) Schools (7) The New Indian Express (7) UNO (7) USA (7) Villupuram (7) ground water (7) prime minister (7) Andhra Pradesh (6) Beach (6) Cauvery (6) Children (6) Coimbatore (6) Court (6) Cricket (6) Jaya TV (6) Lok Sabha (6) Mobile Phones (6) Strike (6) cellphones (6) 10th Exam (5) Car (5) Dinakaran (5) High Court (5) MGR (5) Municipality (5) One Year Performance (5) Online (5) Petrol (5) Plastic (5) Political Party (5) Progress Card (5) RBI (5) Sethusamudram (5) Sports (5) Sun TV (5) banks (5) lawyers (5) madras (5) russia (5) temple (5) CEC (4) Corporation (4) Credit Card (4) DMDK (4) Health (4) International (4) MDMK (4) MLAs (4) Makkal TV (4) Mumbai (4) Nuclear standoff (4) PIB (4) Prices (4) SSLC (4) Sethu (4) Surgery (4) TIPS (4) TV (4) Tamil (4) Time Table (4) Vaiko (4) World Water Day (4) chief minister (4) computer (4) kerala (4) 2011 (3) 3rd World War (3) Actor (3) Adulterated items (3) Agriculture (3) Airport (3) Anti-Corruption (3) BSNL (3) Bandh (3) Bragadeeswara Temple (3) Britain (3) Cabinet Minister (3) Civil Supplies Department (3) Constitution (3) Cr.P.C. (3) Daily Thanthi (3) Dasara festival (3) EVMs (3) Foods (3) Garbage (3) Gazette (3) Helmets (3) Hospital (3) I-Day (3) IPC (3) IT (3) Ice (3) Kalaignar TV (3) Kollidam (3) MPs (3) Marina Beach (3) Medical (3) Microsoft (3) Mini Flight (3) Mysore (3) Panruti (3) Photos (3) Politicians (3) Pollution (3) Pranab Mukherjee (3) Public Exam (3) RTI Act (3) Raj TV (3) Rajiv Gandhi (3) Schoolboy (3) Smoking (3) Sonia Gandhi (3) South Africa (3) Speaker (3) Tanjore (3) Teacher (3) Telangana (3) Telephone (3) UNPA (3) Vijayakant (3) Yahoo (3) cbi (3) delhi (3) gujarat (3) mssrf (3) newspaper (3) planet (3) salem division (3) times of india (3) 1000 Rupee Note (2) 12th Exam (2) ATM (2) Aadhar Card (2) Advertisements (2) AirTel (2) Assembly Meeting (2) BESCOM (2) Birth Certificate (2) Botanical Garden (2) Boycott (2) Bus Stand (2) CCTVs (2) CJI (2) CPI (2) CPM (2) Cadres (2) Cancer (2) Christians (2) Church (2) Cigarettes (2) Compensation (2) Complaint (2) Cyclone (2) DTH (2) Daily Telegraph (2) Dams (2) Death Anniversary (2) Debates (2) Debit Card (2) Driving (2) ECR (2) Earth (2) Eye (2) Floods (2) Fonseka (2) Foreign Nations (2) Foreigners (2) Four Track Road (2) Full Moon (2) Genocide (2) Global Warming (2) Govt. Staffs (2) Green (2) Guru (2) Heart (2) Heritage buildings (2) Highways (2) Hogenakkal (2) Home Minister (2) Home Ministry (2) Hyderabad (2) ICICI (2) IT Capital (2) Independence (2) Judges (2) Katchatheevu Island (2) Kerala High Court (2) Kiran Bedi (2) LORRY (2) LPG Gas Connection (2) Law College (2) Legislative Assembly Complex (2) Lieutenant Governor (2) London (2) Losses (2) M.K.Stalin (2) Maalaimalar (2) Mahe (2) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2) Medicine (2) Mega TV (2) Moon (2) Motor Vehicles (2) Municipal waste (2) Musharraf (2) NASA (2) NDTV (2) Nagapattinam (2) Narendra Modi (2) National Highways (2) Nepal (2) Notifications (2) Obama (2) Pamban (2) Parking Place (2) Passport (2) Pazha Nedumaaran (2) Phones (2) Portfolios (2) Pratibha Patil (2) Private TV Channels (2) RBI Governor (2) RTO (2) Railway Minister (2) Rajya Sabha (2) Ramanathapuram (2) Ramdoss (2) Rameswaram (2) Ration Card (2) Rename (2) Reservation (2) Rivers Inter-link (2) Rowdies (2) Royal Cable Vision (2) Rule of Law (2) S.K.Upadhyay (2) SAARC (2) Sachin (2) Salary (2) Satellite (2) School Van (2) Sea Level Rising (2) Search Engine (2) Somnath Chatterjee (2) Speech (2) Subramanian Swamy (2) Sumangali Cable Vision (2) T.R.Baalu (2) TRAI (2) Tamil Murasu (2) Tax issues (2) Tea (2) Telecom (2) Theft (2) Tibet (2) Tiruchi (2) Tiruchirapalli (2) Tirupur District (2) Tobacco (2) Tourism (2) Veeranam Lake (2) Vellore (2) Vellore Jail (2) Vice President (2) Vigilance (2) Voters' List (2) Woman (2) World Heritage (2) World Tour (2) bangaladesh (2) eTicket (2) iTicket (2) kizhur (2) madurai (2) minister (2) monuments (2) o.paneerselvam (2) security (2) states (2) technology (2) television (2) vkc (2) கச்சத்தீவு (2) 100 feet Road (1) 10th Schedule (1) 11-storey Building (1) 16th World Editors' Forum (1) 1996 (1) 2001 (1) 2007 (1) 2008 (1) 2009 (1) 60 Years (1) 62nd World Newspaper Congress (1) 75 years of history (1) A.P.Hithendran (1) AC Bus (1) AIIMS (1) Abbreviations (1) Act (1) Actor Vijay (1) Adichanallur (1) Advertisement (1) Advocate Durai (1) Aerobridge (1) Agitation (1) Agricultural Lands (1) Ahmedabad blasts (1) Alert (1) Alive (1) Ambassador (1) Anbumani Ramadoss (1) Animation (1) Anna (1) Announcement (1) Annual Day (1) Anti-conversion (1) Apollo Hospitals (1) Application Form (1) Applications (1) Archaeology (1) Army (1) Art.370 (1) Asif Ali Zardari (1) Assam (1) Assassin (1) Assassination (1) Attestation (1) Auditor (1) Aurobindo Ashram (1) Australia (1) BCCI (1) BPL (1) Baby (1) Badminton (1) Baggage missing (1) Bahour (1) Bankruptcy (1) Bar Council of India (1) Barricades (1) Battery (1) Beggers (1) Bhubaneswar Express (1) Bihar (1) Bill (1) Birth centenary (1) Black Film (1) Blogger News Network (1) Body (1) Book Fair (1) Booking Rules (1) Bribe (1) Bricks (1) British (1) Browser (1) Budget Session (1) Burnt (1) Buses (1) Business Line (1) Busisness (1) CAG (1) CEO (1) CMDA (1) CMRP (1) CMs Conference (1) CNN IBN (1) Calendar (1) Car Festival (1) Cash Transaction Tax (1) Cataract (1) Cauvery Tribunal Award (1) Census (1) Chairman (1) Chalukyas (1) Change of Mobile (1) Charge Sheet (1) Chennai (South) Forum (1) Chennai Cricket Club (1) Chennai Metro Rail Project (1) Chidambaram (1) Chief Secretary (1) Child Pornography (1) China (1) Chinna Veerampattinam Beach (1) Chiranjeevi (1) Christmas (1) Chunnambar River (1) Cinema (1) Circular (1) Civil Judge (1) Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill (1) Clash (1) Climate Change (1) Clonning (1) Closing (1) Cochin (1) Cock (1) Collector (1) Colleges (1) Colonial Rule (1) Comedian (1) Commune Panchayat (1) Companies (1) Consumer (1) Consumer goods (1) Contempt (1) Conversion (1) Convicts (1) Cooum (1) Copenhagen (1) Copenhagen Accord (1) Copyright (1) Courses (1) Daily Pioneer (1) Dayanidhi Maran (1) Defamation (1) Delhi High Court (1) Demise (1) Demolition (1) Derogatory remarks (1) Development Index for States (1) Devotional (1) Dhoti (1) Diamond Jubilee (1) Dina Thanthi (1) Dinamani Newspaper (1) Director (1) Diseases (1) Disney TV (1) Disqualification (1) Disrespect (1) Do's and Dont's (1) Doctors (1) Don Bosco School (1) Double Decker (1) Download (1) Dowry (1) Drainage (1) Dress Code (1) Drowned (1) Drunken (1) Dust bin (1) ECI (1) EU (1) EVKS Elangovan (1) Earth quake (1) Ebola virus disease (1) Egg (1) Egmore (1) Electricity (1) Elocution Competition (1) Emergency (1) Employment (1) Engineer (1) English (1) Extension (1) FC (1) FDI (1) FII (1) FPR Waste (1) Fake Identiy Cards (1) Fakes (1) Family Name (1) Farm Lands (1) Fast Food Stalls (1) Fatal injury (1) Faulty Printing (1) Federal Police (1) Fees (1) Fellowship Award (1) Fever (1) Finance Minister (1) Finger Prints (1) Fire (1) First Name (1) Fishermen (1) Flower Show (1) Foreign Ministers (1) Former Minister (1) Fort (1) Fort St. George (1) Forum Mall (1) Free of Cost (1) French Diviner (1) Fuel (1) Funeral ceremony (1) GSLV (1) Galaxy (1) Ganesha Pandals (1) Gangaikondacholapuram (1) Garib Rath (1) Gazetted Officers (1) German Architects (1) Germany (1) Gingee Fort (1) Given Name (1) Gmail (1) Goa (1) Goods Train (1) Goondas Act (1) Goons (1) Gopalsamy (1) Governor (1) Greetings (1) Guardian Newspapers Limited (1) Guru Peyarchi Palan (1) Guruvalaya Sports Coaching Centre (1) Guwahati (1) HSRP Number Plates (1) HSc (1) Half-ticket (1) Hawkers (1) Helicopter (1) Hen (1) Hindus (1) Hindustan Times (1) Home Page (1) Hotel (1) Hotmail (1) Howrah Superfast Express (1) Humanism (1) Humanity (1) Hyderabad Twin Blasts (1) IAS (1) IATR (1) IBSA (1) ICC (1) ICC World Cup 2007 (1) ICJ (1) IMCHRC (1) IMDT Act (1) IRCTC (1) ISRO (1) IT Act (1) Identiy Cards (1) Images (1) Independence Day (1) India Guinness records (1) Indian Kanoon (1) Indian Rupee (1) Inflation (1) Insects (1) Internet (1) Investment (1) Investors (1) Iran (1) Israel (1) JIPMER (1) Jammu & Kashmir (1) Jammu & Kashmir High Court (1) Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (1) Japan (1) Job (1) Judicial Staffs (1) Judiciary (1) Jupiter (1) Justice Dalveer Bhandari (1) KAMBAR (1) Kachatheevu (1) Kachchathivu island (1) Kalaimagal Vizha (1) Kallanai (1) Kalrayan Hills (1) Kamal Nath (1) Kamarajar (1) Kamban Kalai Arangam (1) Kandasamy (1) Kapil Sibal (1) Karaikal-Nagoor (1) Kazhugumalai (1) Keerthiga (1) Kerla (1) Kids (1) Kingfisher (1) Kolar Gold Field (1) Kovaithambi (1) L.K.advani (1) LTTE (1) Lake (1) Lalu (1) Landline Phones (1) Levy (1) Licenses (1) Life Jackets (1) Lord Shiva (1) Lung disease (1) M.K.Alagiri (1) M.S.Gill (1) MCI (1) MET (1) MLC (1) MRP (1) MSO (1) MV Act (1) MYLAI (1) MYLAPORE (1) Madikrishnapuram (1) Madurai Bench (1) Madurai Corporation (1) Mahabalipuram (1) Maharashtra (1) Mailam (1) Malaysian Airlines (1) Malladi Krishnarao (1) Mamata Banerjee (1) Mangalore (1) Mangalore Express (1) Manirathnam (1) Marriages (1) Mars (1) Matriculation (1) Matrimony (1) Mayor (1) Meets (1) Melodies Songs (1) Metro Train (1) Mettur Dam (1) Microsoft Office 2010 (1) Middle Name (1) Mississippi (1) Misuse of pro-women law (1) Modi (1) Monarchy (1) Monetary (1) Moot Court (1) Mosquitoes (1) Moulivakkam (1) Mukumbu (1) Mullaiperiyar Dam (1) Mullaperiyar Dam (1) Mumbai Dadar Chalukya Express (1) Murali (1) Murder case (1) Murugan (1) Muscle power (1) Muslims (1) Mysore Palace (1) N.Ram (1) NATO (1) NGO (1) NH (1) NHAI (1) NSK alias N.S.Krishnan (1) Nalini (1) Namathu MGR (1) Namma Ooru Seythi (1) Nanauk (1) Nandhi (1) Narayana Murthy (1) National Crime Records Bureau (1) National Security Act (1) Natural (1) Natwar Singh (1) Naxalites (1) Nehru Street (1) Nelson (1) New Delhi Superfast Express (1) New Year (1) Night Hours (1) Nostradamus (1) November 1 (1) Numbers (1) ODI (1) OPS (1) Ocean (1) Offers (1) Office Bearers (1) Old Prison (1) Old Songs (1) Olympics (1) Open Page (1) Organ Transplant Operation (1) Ottavio Quattrocchi (1) Oussudu Lake (1) Overbridge (1) P.B.Sreenivas (1) P.Chidambaram (1) PBS (1) PIN Number (1) PMC (1) PONTEX (1) PRTC (1) PSLV (1) PTI (1) Paintings (1) Palakkad (1) Palani (1) Pallineliyanur (1) Pamphlets (1) Parents (1) Patta (1) Pennayar River (1) People's President (1) Perarivalan (1) Philosopher (1) Phone tapping (1) Physical Map (1) Pillaiyarkuppam (1) Pillayarkuppam (1) Planning Commission (1) Playback singer (1) Poisonous (1) Pollution Under Control Certificate (1) Pondicherry Code (1) Ponlait Milk Society (1) Poongothai (1) Porur Lake (1) Post Office (1) Postal Savings (1) Poverty (1) Power Generation (1) Prakash Karat (1) Prison (1) Privacy (1) Private Clinic (1) Priyanka (1) Proclaimed Offender (1) Property Tax (1) Prosecution (1) Prospectus (1) Protest (1) Public Meetings (1) Public Servant (1) Puli Devan (1) Pumpkin (1) Punjab (1) Puthiya Thalaimurai TV (1) Puzzle (1) Questions (1) RJD (1) RTE Act (1) Radiation (1) Raghuram Rajan (1) Railway Bridge (1) Raja (1) Raja Kannappan (1) Rajasulochana (1) Ramarajan (1) Real Name (1) Recovery Agents (1) Reddiarpalayam (1) Rejoinder (1) Release (1) Religion (1) Remand (1) Renovation (1) Reply in Tamil (1) Republic Day (1) Reshuffle (1) Results (1) Retirement (1) Riots (1) Rule 417-A (1) S.Ve.Sekar (1) SBI (1) SEBI (1) SEZs (1) SP (1) SRC (1) Sachar Commission (1) Salem Railway Division (1) Sand quarry issue (1) Saneeswarar (1) Sarkaria Commission (1) Sathankulam (1) Saturn (1) Saudia Arabia (1) Save Tamil (1) Scandal (1) Schedule (1) Sea Route (1) Self-attestation (1) Sex (1) Sharad Pawar (1) Sharekhan (1) Shilma Railway (1) Shimoga District (1) Ship (1) Shopping Malls (1) Shuttlecock (1) Signal (1) Sikh Temple (1) Singer (1) Sivanthi Adityan (1) Skulls (1) Smart Card (1) Social Network (1) Software (1) Sonia (1) Sony (1) Sornavur Anaicut (1) Spectrum (1) SpiceJet (1) Sree Nivas Tower (1) Sri Krishna Report (1) Sri Rangam (1) Sriharikota (1) State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (1) Statue (1) Stlain (1) Sub Registrar (1) Subramania Bharati (1) Summer Vacation (1) Sun (1) Sun Halo (1) Superfast Train (1) Surname (1) Survey Department (1) Suspension (1) Swine flu (1) Symbol (1) T.Kritinan (1) TATA (1) TATA Sumo (1) TNEB (1) TNPSC (1) Taluk (1) Tamil Actor (1) Terrace House Gardening (1) Thane (1) Thanjavur (1) Thenkinnam (1) Thirukkural (1) Thirumurai (1) Thirunallar (1) Thothukudi (1) Time-Table (1) Tindivanam (1) Tirunallar (1) Tirupati Train (1) Titanium (1) Toll-free number (1) Tornado (1) Transfer Certificate (1) Transport Department (1) Trees (1) Tuticorin (1) Twitter (1) Two Youths (1) Two-wheeler (1) UK (1) UNESCO (1) UPA (1) Uchimedu (1) Union Council of Ministers (1) Universe (1) University (1) Unlimited Night Calls (1) Unmanned Level Crossing (1) Unreserved Compartments (1) Uppalam (1) V.Narayanasamy (1) VCK (1) VETA (1) VIP (1) VOC (1) Vacuum Cleaner (1) Vaigai (1) Vamba Keerapalayam (1) Vedharanyam (1) Vehicles (1) Video-conferencing (1) Vidhana Soudha (1) Village (1) Villianur (1) Visa (1) Volley Ball Cup (1) WHO (1) WTC (1) WTO (1) War (1) Wedding (1) Whales (1) Women Police (1) Women's Right and Status (1) Women’s Reservation Bill (1) World Bank (1) World Records (1) World Tamil Conference (1) Yanam (1) Yesvantpur Garib Rath (1) argentina (1) atomic energy (1) azhagiri (1) bifurcation (1) bofors pay off case (1) buddhist (1) channels (1) child abuse (1) cyber crime (1) cyber security (1) e-Library (1) forensic laboratory (1) google sky (1) hyde act (1) i (1) india today (1) indira Gandhi (1) indus valley civilisation (1) information (1) ipod (1) jains (1) katnataka (1) koil (1) kudankulam (1) lectronic Voting Machines (1) mamalla (1) money lender (1) moscow (1) mumbai riot (1) rangasamy (1) salem (1) sculptor (1) telefilm (1) trucks (1) wordpress (1) அரியாங்குப்பம் (1) ஆதிச்சநல்லூர் (1) இதயக்கோவில் (1) எபோலா தீநுண்ம நோய் (1) கல்வராயன் மலைகள் (1) கல்வி சாதனையாளர் பட்டயம் (1) குடுவை ஆறு (1) சங்கரதாஸ் சுவாமிகளின் நாடக சபா (1) சிவராந்தகம் (1) சுழல் காற்று (1) தமிழர் உணவகம் (1) நுரையீரல் நோய் (1) பயிர்களை பராமரிப்பது எப்படி? (1) புதுவை மெரினா பீச் (1) பொக்கிஷம் (1) மணிரத்னம் (1) மலட்டு நிலம் (1) ராஜசுலோசனா (1) வாஞ்சி மணியாச்சி ரயில் நிலையம் (1) வாஞ்சிநாதன் (1)